Day 2 :
American Humane Association , USA
Time : 09:00-09:25
Dr. Robin Ganzert is the President and CEO of American Humane Association, the oldest national humane organization in the United States. A frequent media commentator, she has appeared in the New York Times, Today Show, CNN, BBC, NPR, USA Today, and Fox and Friends. She is the author of the new book Animal Stars, and has published opinion pieces on FoxNews.com, The Hill, and trade publications. Her recent research was presented in the Annual Review of Animal Biosciences.
A new medical model is predicated on a meaningful commitment by both medical and veterinary researchers to work cooperatively together to address disease and disorders in humans and animals – evaluating genetic and environmental risk factors, sensitive diagnostic indicators and novel therapies. While this approach is unique in some respects, the pursuit of such a medical model requires humane, ethical principles to ensure success. American Humane Association’s Animal Welfare Research Institute has identified multiple diseases and disorders that afflict both animals and children, to include cancer, diabetes, respiratory syncytial virus, asthma, food borne illnesses, obesity, neurological disorders and tuberculosis. We have sought innovative collaborations whereby genetic, nutritional and environmental factors might be identified. However, leveraging of expertise of scientists working with companion animals, farm animals and wildlife is essential to optimize the health and welfare of both animals and humans. Society stands on the precipice of change, as the ability to sequence and study the genomes of humans and animals is dramatically altering how scientists and doctors study and treat disease and disorders. Medical breakthroughs stemming from a deeper understanding of our genomic blueprint – and the blueprints of other species – have created a watershed moment for genomic medicine. Advances in the ability to identify and functionally interpret changes in the genetic blueprint of humans and their animal companions have already begun to radically change the practice of medicine for all species.
University of Bradford, United Kingdom
Keynote: Administration of tea phenols in bulk and nanoparticle form reduces and increases respectively DNA damage in human lymphocytes from colon cancer patients and healthy individuals treated in vitro with platinum based chemotherapeutic drugs
Time : 09:25-09:50
Professor Anderson completed her PhD at the University of Manchester, UK in the Faculty of Medicine. She is the Established Chair in Biomedical Sciences at the University of Bradford. She has published more than 450 papers, 8 books, successfully supervised 30 PhD students, has an Hirsch factor of 51. She is Editor –in- Chief of a Book Series for the Royal Society of Chemistry and is Consultant to many International Organisations, such as the World Health Organisation/ International Programme of Chemical Safety.
Tea catechin epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and other polyphenols such as theaflavins are increasingly proving useful as chemopreventives in a number of human cancers, and can also affect normal cells. The polyphenols in tea are known to have antioxidant properties that can quench free radical species, and also pro-oxidant activities that appear to be responsible for the induction of apoptosis in tumour cells. The bioavailability of these natural compounds is an important factor that determines their efficacy. Nanoparticle-mediated delivery techniques of EGCG and theaflavins have been found to improve their bioavailability to a level that could benefit their effectiveness as chemopreventives. The present study was conducted to compare the effects of theaflavins and EGCG, when used in the bulk form and in the biopolymer (polylactide-co-glycolide)-based nanoparticle form, in oxaliplatin- and satraplatin-treated lymphocytes as surrogate cells from colorectal cancer patients and healthy volunteers. The results of DNA damage measurements by the Comet assay revealed opposite trends in bulk and nanoparticle forms of theaflavins as well as EGCG. Both the compounds in the bulk form produced statistically significant concentration-dependent reductions in DNA damage in oxaliplatin- or satraplatin-treated lymphocytes. In contrast when used in the nanoparticle form both theaflavins and EGCG, although initially causing a reduction, produced a concentration-dependent statistically significant increase in DNA damage in the lymphocytes. These observations support the notion that theaflavins and EGCG act as both antioxidants and pro-oxidants, depending on the form in which they are administered under the conditions of investigation.
University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom
Keynote: Is alcohol consumption associated with reporting of chronic pain in individuals with stable levels of alcohol consumption/non-consumption?
Time : 09:50-10:15
Gary Macfarlane has been Professor of Epidemiology at The University of Aberdeen since 2005 and previously held the same post at The University of Manchester from 1999. He trained in Statistics/ Computing Science and then Medicine at The University of Glasgow before undertaking his PhD at The University of Bristol. He worked at the Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics at the European Institute of Oncology in Milan 1991-1995 before leading a programme of chronic pain research at the Arthritis Research UK Epidemiology Unit at the University of Manchester. He leads the Epidemiology group at the University of Aberdeen which has programmes of research in Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Diseases (RMD), Reproductive Health and Ageing. The RMD programme focuses on: musculoskeletal pain (including fibromyalgia), rheumatic fatigue and axial sponyloarthropathy. It has current funding of ~£4m, it runs the British Society of Rheumatology Biologics Register in Ankylosing Spondylitis (BSRBR-AS) and is part of the Arthritis Research UK/Medical Research Council Centre for Musculoskeletal Health and Work (with University of Southampton). Professor Macfarlane is a Chartered Statistician of the Royal Statistical Society as well as a Fellow of the Faculty of Public Health Medicine.
Background: Observational studies have shown an association between alcohol consumption and the reporting of chronic musculoskeletal pain reporting. A “J” shaped curve is observed whereby risk is highest in non-drinkers and heavy drinkers. These patterns may arise through failure to account for changes in drinking due to ill health. This study investigated associations in those with stable patterns of alcohol consumption from a large population study. Methods: UK Biobank recruited approximately a half million persons 40-69 year-old people across Great Britain. Participants answered health/lifestyle questions by touch screen at assessment centres. Questions included pain at regional sites or ‘all-over’ in last month, and whether pain was chronic (i.e. had lasted at least 3 months). Alcohol questions were frequency/amount, previous drinking if non-drinkers, consumption change in 10 years, and reasons for stopping/reducing consumption. Participants were classed as: ‘no change in alcohol consumption’ or ‘stopped/reduced alcohol consumption’. Those classed ‘as no change in alcohol consumption’ were categorised as: non-drinkers, special occasions-only, 1-3 times/month, or units/week if at least once/week. Relative risk reduction (RRR) was calculated for reporting any chronic pain, and chronic pain all-over for each category compared to non-drinkers. RRRs were adjusted for potential confounders (age, gender, BMI, education, deprivation, social networks, loneliness, mood, and smoking (‘partially-adjusted’)) and self-reported health (‘fully-adjusted’). Results: In those not stopping/reducing, risk of any chronic pain was lowest in drinkers particularly those drinking 10-15 units/week (compared to non-drinkers, RRR partially-adjusted 16.1%, RRR fully-adjusted 8.2% [99% CI 5.7-10.8%]). For chronic pain all-over, reductions were greater but consistent across all consumption levels in those drinking at least once a week (at 10-15 units/week, compared to non-drinkers, RRR partially-adjusted 70.6%, RRR fully-adjusted 50.4% [99% CI 38.3-60.3%]). Conclusions: Associations between alcohol consumption and reporting chronic pain remained even when focussing only on persons with stable consumption, suggesting association is not explained by persons with chronic pain reducing alcohol. Although it has been hypothesised that metabolites of alcohol may facilitate pain inhibitory pathways, residual confounding cannot be ruled out.
- Track: Human Sexual Behavior and Reproductive Health
Track: Approaches to Health Security and Emergency Response
Track: From Data to Policy: Changing life style and global non-communicable diseases prevention strategies
Track: Environmental Epidemiology and The Impact on Public Health Practice
University of Bradford, United Kingdom
RegPoint S.L, Spain
Dalhousie University, Canada
Time : 10:15-10:35
Dr. Steenbeek is an Epidemiologist with expertise on Aboriginal sexual health, sexually transmitted infections, community based research and quantitative research methodology. Dr. Steenbeek received her PhD and Masters from UBC and her BScN from McMaster. She holds an active nursing practice at both the local ER department and in the north. Dr. Steenbeek has an appointment in Pediatrics at the IWK and is a member of the Health Policy & Knowledge Translation at the Canadian Centre of Vaccinology.
Background: In Canada, the human papillomavirus (HPV) is highly prevalent; approximately 75-80% of young adults will contract HPV, increasing risk for genital warts and cervical cancer. PAP screening is effective in detecting pre-cancerous cells (dysplasia), and despite its being free/available to most Canadian university students, many do not access it. Little is known about predictors of HPV screening among this population. Aims: Characterizing university students likely to be tested, to better promote PAP screening. Methods: Data comes from the Maritime Undergraduate Student Sexual Health Services Survey (2012), a cross-sectional, anonymous, online survey of Canadian undergraduate students at eight universities (n =10,361). This analysis focused on the sexual health of, and health services use by (n=4007) female students, weighted for demographics, imputed for missing values and limited to ages 19-29 (recommended screening age). We performed descriptive analysis and simple/multiple logistic regression analyses on factors associated with screening among vaginally sexually active females. Results: In unadjusted analyses, students at higher /moderate risk of HPV had significantly higher odds of ever having been screened than lower risk; 22% of sexually active females had never been screened. In multivariable models: those that were older, Caucasian, non-heterosexual, less religious, residing with a romantic partner, and those who had more sexual health knowledge and perceived their friends as having liberal attitudes had higher odds of ever having been tested. Those with more attitudinal barriers to help seeking were less likely to ever been tested. Perceived risk of HPV was not associated with testing. Conclusion Those at most risk of HPV were more likely ever tested, yet with 22% never tested it is unlikely that recommendations are being met. Efforts aimed at reducing barriers to help seeking and targeting residences may improve PAP screening in this population.
Parma University, Italy
Title: Phenotypic comparison of non-O1 Vibrio cholerae strains isolated from surface waters in Italy and from imported ornamental fishes
Time : 10:35-10:55
Maria Cristina Ossiprandi Graduated in Veterinary Medicine from the University of Parma and is a Associate Professor in the Animal Health Department of the Microbiology and Immunology Sector of the Veterinary Medicine Faculty, Parma University. She is the Director of School of Specialization in Animal Health, Farming/Breeding and Livestock Production at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Parma CINECA referee until 2010. She is Actually Pro-Rector in Didactic Activities Representative scientist of Emilia Romagna (regional) project called Sybilla (predictive microbiology). She is the author of 82 scientific papers in national and international journal.
Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae are involved in a wide range of clinical manifestations, including enteritis (otitis, appendicitis, pneumonia, meningitis, septicemia, etc.) and are also prevalent in our latitudes, at the level of fresh water, seawater and sewage. In this survey, we ascertained the spread of non-O1 Vibrio cholerae in streams of Parma province (Italy) and compared the phenotypic profile of our isolates with those found in a previous analysis, from ornamental fishes, imported from Asia and Latin America. The water samples were filtered on a membrane. The filter was incubated in alkaline peptone water at pH 8.5 at 37Â°C for 6 hours and, after enrichment, was seeded for isolation on TCBS agar. Strains suspected, grown on Kligler agar, after screening assays, were definitely identified by gallery API 20E. The phenotypic profile was completed by extensive biochemical-enzymatic assays and by susceptibility testing to antibiotics. Thirty-eight strains (B group) of non-O1 V. cholerae were isolated. Their phenotypic profile, like that of the 19 strains (A group), isolated from ornamental fishes, and was perfectly congruent with the needs of identification species. In A group, twelve different resistance combinations were observed; in B group, ten. The resistance associations were also larger in A group, extending to 8 and 7 antibiotics, in two and five cases, respectively. Within B group, the multiple resistances have affected 6 antibiotics and have highlighted a group of 4 strains with resistance to Penicillin alone. We can argue, reasonably, that the isolates are indigenous in our waters and, presumably, spread throughout territory.
National Institute of mental Health and Neuro Sciences, India
Title: Burden of injuries in rural India: Results of a surveillance programme in Tumkur District, Karnataka
Time : 11:15-11:35
Gururaj Gopalkrishna is Professor and Head, Department of Epidemiology, Centre for Public Health, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Bangalore 560029, India.
Introduction: Information on burden, pattern and characteristics of injuries in rural India are not clearly known due to paucity of data and weak information systems. Even though health sector provides care, injury data is not routinely available and data from other sectors have major limitations. The programme initiated by WHO collaborating centre at National Institute of Mental health and Neurosciences in Bangalore, India has successfully used a surveillance approach to build programmes. A similar approach was developed for a rural district of South India. Aim & Objectives: To delineate burden, profile and characteristics of injuries in a rural district of India. Methods: Data was collected from police and hospital sources for a period of one year by trained research officers using validated questionnaires. The hospital data was collected round the clock from the emergency rooms of district hospital and a medical college hospital during the period 2008 – 09. A standardized format developed under the Bangalore Injury surveillance programme was used for collecting information. Data analysis was undertaken using Epi Info. Results: A total of 2146 injured persons were registered in both centres. Among all injuries, Road traffic injuries constituted the major burden accounting for more than 50% of all injuries. Assault (20%), followed by poisoning (12%) were the second and third leading external causes of injuries. Young men were the major groups in all injury causes among both killed and injured. Two wheeler occupants and pedestrians were the major affected groups. Majority (> 75 %) of the injuries were moderate to mild in nature and availability of prehospital care was limited. Conclusion: RTIs are a leading problem even in rural India and coordinated efforts are required for prevention, management and rehabilitation.
King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Saudi Arabia
Title: Google search trend of dengue fever in developing Countries in 203-2014. An internet based analysis
Time : 11:35-11:55
Ashraf El-Metwally is a medical doctor with a PhD in Epidemiology and Biostatistics (University of Tampere, Finland). He joined the College of Public health and Health Informatics in August 201, while holding an honorary lecturer position at the department of Public Health- University of Aberdeen in the UK. His research interests are in the epidemiology of pain, musculoskeletal disorders and rheumatic diseases, with 15 published research papers and reports in international peer-reviewed journals. His international awards include the Young Investigator Award from the British Society of Rheumatology (2006), First Prize for The Best Submitted Paper and Presentation from the British Pain Society (2007).
With the emerging trend on internet used in every field of life the tools are also developed for the surveillance of novel diseases. By using the method of Google Flu Trend the tool for dengue surveillance was developed known as Google Dengue Trends (GDT). GDT was used to retrieve data on the trend of internet search on Dengue in developing countries like India, Indonesia, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Philippine, Singapore, Thailand and Venezuela for two years 2013 and 2014. The trends of internet search in Bolivia and Indonesia depicted that internet search for dengue activity was low and minimal in these two countries. Argentina and Philippine depicted moderate internet search in the year of 2013 and 2014. Internet search in Brazil and India remained high for few months. Internet search in the region of Singapore depicted wide variety of activity and the search reached was high during the month of May and June. Internet search in the region of Thailand and Venezuela also showed wide variation and in Thailand the internet search become intense during June and July. Trends of internet search for dengue through GDT corresponds with the true epidemic of developing countries. Thus, systems like GDT might provide efficient means for estimating the burden of dengue in different countries. With the fast growing world the burden of diseases is also increasing, with the present surveillance system it does not seems practical to prevent the spread of disease. Thus, systems like GDT could complement the current surveillance system, as it is both rapid and cost-effective.
King Saud bin Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia
Time : 11:55-12:15
Alaa AL haeli is a medical doctor with a PhD in Epidemiology and Biostatistics (University of Tampere, Finland). He joined the College of Public health and Health Informatics in August 201, while holding an honorary lecturer position at the department of Public Health- University of Aberdeen in the UK. His research interests are in the epidemiology of pain, musculoskeletal disorders and rheumatic diseases, with 15 published research papers and reports in international peer-reviewed journals. His international awards include the Young Investigator Award from the British Society of Rheumatology (2006), First Prize for The Best Submitted Paper and Presentation from the British Pain Society (2007).
Dengue fever (DF) is the most serious mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. It is an acute febrile illness caused by AedesAegypti mosquito bite. It is endemic in some cities of Saudi Arabia such as Jeddah and Makkah. A computer-based literature search was conducted using relevant keywords to retrieve studies conducted in Saudi Arabia pertaining to DF. Forty-five articles were identified initially. After screening for exclusion and retrieving full texts, a total of ten articles were used for this review. Four studies were cross-sectional and three found a sero-prevalence ranging from 31.7% to 56.9% either among clinically suspected cases or among patients visiting hospital for other reason. Evidence extracted from risk factors and distribution studies showed that young males are commonly affected. Fever, vomiting, thrombocytopenia and leucopoenia were the common features of the three studies related to clinical presentation of DF. One cross-sectional study about educational program of DF showed a positive family history of DF, having literate mothers, and students’ age ≥17 were the predictors of high knowledge score. However, paucity of population-based studies limits generalisability of such evidence. Future studies in Saudi Arabia should focus upon extending DF on other cities in the Kingdom and more population based epidemiological studies are needed for estimating the true burden and incidence of dengue in Saudi population, as currently there are few epidemiological studies about dengue and are only limited to sero-prevalence among clinically suspected cases and among hospital based patients.
University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom
Time : 12:15-12:35
Dr Tatiana Macfarlane has completed her PhD in Epidemiology at the University of Manchester in England. She previously worked at the European Institute of Oncology in Italy and International Agency for Research of Cancer in France. Her main research interests are in epidemiology of head and neck cancer and oral health epidemiology. She has been involved in major international collaborations such as Alcohol-related Cancers and Genetic Susceptibility in Europe (ARCAGE) and International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium (INHANCE). She has published over 120 peer reviewed papers.
BACKGROUND: Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used as analgesics and preventative agents for vascular events. Few studies have investigated the role of NSAIDs specifically for head and neck cancer (HNC), and the results are not consistent. AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of aspirin on the risk of HNC within the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium (http://www.inhance.utah.edu). METHODS: Individual data were available from seven case-control studies conducted in ten countries (4372 cases and 7361 controls). Logistic regression with studies treated as random effects was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for age, gender, education, smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index. RESULTS: Prevalence of regular aspirin use (at least once a week for year) varied between studies (2% - 57%), and majority of participants (89%) used it for cardiovascular prevention. Regular aspirin use was associated with an overall risk reduction of HNC (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.76, 0.85). Analysis by duration showed further reduction with long term use (10 years or more OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.62, 0.90; test for trend P=0.006). We found an inverse association for all sub-sites (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.65, 1.00 for oropharynx, OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.26, 0.55 for hypopharynx and 0.75 95% CI 0.67, 0.85 for larynx) except oral cavity (OR 1.04 95% CI 0.89, 1.21).
Center of Global Consciousness, Waterloo, Canada
Time : 12:35-12:55
Kevin Galalae is Founder of Center of Global Consciousness, Leader of Human Rights Party of Canada, and Chairman of Protect Your Child, in Ontario, Canada.
Medicine and public health have been gradually compromised by the highest echelons of science, industry and public administration, both nationally and internationally, for the geopolitical and geostrategic objectives of depopulation and decarbonization. Under the cover of reproductive health, involuntary and coerced sterilizations are carried out throughout the developing world through adulterated vaccines to bring the overpopulation problem under control, while in the developed world flu immunization programs serve to weaken the immune systems of the old and of civil servants to spare governments from meeting their already insolvent health care and pension plan obligations in the fourth and last stage of the demographic transition. Endocrine disruptors inserted in the basic elements of life – water, salt, milk, beverages, food, dental and cosmetic products – have been used, under the pretext of preventing caries and the spread of communicable diseases, since the early 1950s to chronically subvert the human reproductive system and bring down the total fertility rate of every country on earth to replacement level. In the name of sustainable development, experimental carbon capture and sequestration methods as well as solar radiation management methods double as weapons against human longevity throughout the developed world by subjecting billions of people to unnaturally high exposure levels of toxic heavy metals so the world’s decarbonization goals are tackled from two directions, by reducing greenhouse gases already in the atmosphere while at the same time increasing morbidity and mortality among the general population to proactively lower future emissions. Poverty and hunger are used as fronts for the deployment of genetically modified crops that purportedly increase yields, improve nutrition and require fewer fertilizers and pesticides, but that in fact misuse the latest bioengineering advances to cause subfertility, immune deficiencies and crop failures and thus lower the population by limiting births and increasing deaths. These chemical, biological and bacteriological methods are designed to weaken and confuse the autoimmune response of billions in preparation for naturally occurring pathogens or man-made pandemics, such as the current Ebola outbreak in West Africa, that are engineered when and if the UN and its agencies, aided by the military-industrial complex, decide to implement final solutions to prevent select regions of the world from losing control of society and to aid backward countries in reaching the Millennium Development Goals.
National Institute for Communicable Diseases/NICD, South Africa
Time : 13:35-13:55
Veerle Msimang is a bio-engineer, from Ghent University with a Master of Science in Veterinary Epidemiology and Public Health, from University of London Royal Veterinary College. She has worked on a number of animal production development and disease research projects in Singapore, South Africa, Ecuador and Madagascar. She is now epidemiologist for the Centre for Emerging and Zoonotic Diseases of the National Institute for Communicable Diseases in Johannesburg, South Africa, which she joined since 2007. She has authored and contributed to various publications in infectious disease epidemiology and is a growing expert in the epidemiology of zoonotic and vector-borne diseases.
The National Institute for Communicable Diseases in South Africa investigates humans for arboviral infections. Rift Valley fever/RVF virus, the most important remerging arbovirus, first appeared in 1951 but has persisted in wildlife reservoirs and floodwater mosquito vectors Aedes spp. ever since, resulting in irregular, unpredictable local emerging outbreaks throughout the country or large epidemics in central SA. The last epidemic of 2010-2011 resulted in 278 human confirmed cases and 25 deaths. West Nile/WN and Sindbis/SIN fever outbreaks commonly occurred simultaneously with RVF epidemics transmitted from birds by one of the same species mosquitoes used by RVF virus, i.e. Culex spp. e.g. 10% SIN detection rate in 2010. WN and SIN human infection on the central SA Highveld has been continuous but limited to sporadic cases annually e.g. 1.3% SIN detection rate (2006-2009). These viruses caused mainly fever with no mortalities or severe disease in humans in SA; although a fatal human WN case was reported in 2014. The evolution of Dengue/DEN and chikungunya/CHIK viruses into a form better adapted to human-to-human mosquito transmission is the principal cause of their emerging, and explosive spread into urban environments globally. DEN virus has not yet permanently established in an urban mosquito-human-mosquito cycle, neither exists in enzootic cycle in SA. Only a DEN outbreak occurred in Durban in the early 1900s. CHIK occurs in north-eastern parts of SA and few locally acquired cases/outbreaks are the result of accidental spill-over to humans. A concern is the growing urban CHIK and DEN (n=121, 2008-2014) imported cases.
Health Ministry, Democratic Republic of Congo
Title: Evaluation of the Tuberculosis surveillance system in the Lingwala Health District, province of Kinshasa / DRC, from 2008 to 2011
Time : 13:55-14:15
Misombo-Kalabela A is officier in Provincial Health Office at Health Ministry of Democratic Republic of Congo.
Tuberculosis is a contagious disease which propagates by air. It is connected to poverty and affects especially productive young adults in developing countries. In 2009, Tuberculosis caused 1.7 million deaths. It is among the most three causes of death in women between 15 to 44 years old. The evaluation was based on the surveillance criteria of CDC / Atlanta. Informations were collected on a form for the period from 2008 to 2011. Health workers were interviewed using a questionnaire. We used excel software for analysis. On a total of 36 investigated health workers, 21 (58%) need less than 10 minutes to fill the notification form, 29 (80%) accept the surveillance as their daily work with 28 956 filled items on a total of 29 384; 88% (32/36) of reports are verified by another person. A place is planned for monitoring of other diseases on all notification forms. From 56 513 made samples 10 201 are positive. The surveillance system worked continuously during all the period of the study. Twelve health facilities from 28 (42. 8%) send their reports. The routine tuberculosis surveillance system in the Lingwala heath District is flexible, acceptable, and useful with a positive predictive value of 18 % as well as 87.5 % of validity and a weak representativeness of 42.8 %. It is integrated but presents the risk of distortion and lack of informations. It requires a strengthening of resources and the integration of private health facilities.
University of Siena, Italy
Time : 14:15-14:35
Gabriele Messina MD Dr. Ph MSc Epidemiology graduated in 1999 at the University of Siena, in 2002 obtained the Master in Epidemiology (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine) and in 2003 had the Degree of Specialist in Hygiene and Public Health at the University of Siena. From 2005 he is Research Professor of Hygiene and Public Health in the University of Siena. He published more than 90 scientific full papers.
Background: Hospital cleaning practices and methods for their assessment are important for healthcare-associated infections prevention. Aims of the study were: i) to assess the daily cleaning procedures of different surfaces in hospital bathrooms with a fluorescent marker, ii) to study correlations between results obtained by this method and microbial contamination. Methods: We enrolled 44 bathrooms of six hospital wards (A, B and C medical; D, E and F surgical) in which we analysed 218 surfaces (basin, toilet seat, flush button, inside door handle, light switch and floor). We applied a UV-fluorescent marker to these surfaces and the following day we assigned a score according how completely the marker had been removed. On the floor of each bathroom we also placed Petri dishes to assess bacterial colony forming units (CFU). The Wilcoxon test was used for comparisons between wards, Fisher’s exact test for removal scores comparisons between different objects, Spearman’s coefficient for correlations between CFU score and marker removal score. Results: Ward F proved to be less clean than wards A, B and E (p<0.05). Medical units were cleaner than surgical ones (p=0.0016). Basins were cleaner than the other surfaces (p<0.05), toilet seats were dirtier than floors (p=0.048) and door handles (p=0.013). CFU score and mark removal score did not seem to be correlated. Conclusions: The UV marker proved to be a practical and effective method for checking cleaning procedures. An early identification of inadequate cleaning practices allows the repetition of them until good hygiene standard are reached. UV marker could replace visual inspection, in a multistep process later including quantitative methods.
University of Maryland, USA
Title: Examining the Social and Physical Environment of Adolescent Substance Users in Shanghai and East Baltimore
Time : 14:35-14:50
Paul is currently working as a research assistant at the American Institutes for Research (AIR) supporting projects surrounding Youth Violence Prevention in major US cities and the “Safe Schools / Healthy Students” initiative, focused on positive behavioural interventions, school violence prevention, and healthy childhood development throughout adolescence. Paul graduated in December 2013 from the BCH program and has been able to build upon many of the lessons learned from his experience within the program. Most recently he attended the APHA conference in New Orleans to assist in the presentation on the Youth Violence grant initiative and his contributions in his summer internship at the Bloomberg School of Public Health has led to a publication this December in the Journal of Adolescent Health. Paul looks forward to continuing his work at AIR as well as narrowing down his focus and applying to graduate schools in “Environmental Health” in the near future. Despite graduating, his continual mentorship from professors within BCH, including James Butler, Kerry Green, and Muhiuddin Haider have contributed immensely in motivating Paul to seek out diverse and challenging opportunities.
Adolescent substance use is a problem that has affected communities across the globe. Research has shown that the social and physical environments play a tremendous role in its prevalence within society. This study aims to look at communities within Baltimore and Shanghai to examine how social factors such as friend and teacher support as well as the infrastructure of a community neighbourhood contribute to adolescent cigarette, marijuana, and alcohol use. Utilizing a respondent driven sampling strategy, researchers surveyed 455 participants from Shanghai and 472 participants from Baltimore between the ages of 15-19. Indicators such as gender, school status, and work status were held constant to ensure no other variable was a significant contributor. Using linear regressions while controlling for gender, school status, and work status, researchers found an association between current marijuana use and ever cigarette use and increased teacher support within Baltimore. In Shanghai, the association was between ever cigarette use and ever alcohol use and teacher support. Friend support was not associated with substance use habits in either site. Increased perception of community cohesion was associated with ever cigarette use in Shanghai along with in-school status. Lastly, an increased perception of community cohesion was associated with lower marijuana use and alcohol use in Baltimore. Teacher support was the most influential variable showcasing the significance education may play in combating substance use. These findings suggest that future research should be conducted at how environmental and social factors can be enhanced in urban communities to improve adolescent substance use.
Sun Yat-sen University School of Public Health, China
Title: Exploring the association between sexual risk behavior and social support in a population representative epidemiological study of Chinese adults in Guangzhou, China
Time : 14:50-15:05
Fangjing Zhou is a postgraduate of Faculty of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University. She is an Assistant of Sun Yat-sen Center for Migrant Health Policy (CMHP), a multidisciplinary center on migrant health, which aims to pioneer knowledge on health of an important population with implications for national health policies and goals. The research teams of CMHP concentrate on primary health care, disease burden, mental health, sexual and reproductive health of migrants and so on. Her research direction is sexual health of migrants, focusing on sexual risk behavior and sexually transmitted disease. She has participated in related researches and a paper has been in peer review.
Background: Sexual risk behavior is highly sensitive and intimate within the Chinese cultural context, and is mainly assessed among high risk population, e.g. female sex worker (FSW), men who have sex with men (MSM) and rural-to-urban migrants. Megacities like Guangzhou have undergone evidently changes of population structure with increasing numbers of high-risk groups lacking social support. The importance of social support on sexual risk behavior is unclear. The current study, therefore, aims at investigating the association between sexual risk behavior and social support among Chinese adults. Method: Data was obtained from 765 Chinese adults aged 18-59 years using stratified random sampling by utilizing spatial epidemiological methods. Face-to-face interviews were conducted following randomization by building (nearest geographic coordinate) and floor levels, with participant selection based on lowest birthday method. Interviews were conducted in participants’ homes with a self-report questionnaire. Participants reported whether they had multiple sex partners or unprotected sexual behavior in the past month, respectively. Social support was measured by the Social Support Rating Scale scored 66 in total with 3 dimensions, namely subjective support, objective support and the utilization of support. Association between sexual risk behavior and social support was analyzed by univariate analysis followed by multivariate logistic regression analysis to adjust for possible confounding factors. Results: The prevalence of multiple sexual partners and unprotected sexual behavior was 18.25% and 52.51%, respectively. The average social support score was (38.08±8.20), subjective support score, objective support score and the utilization of support score were (21.41±5.78), (9.31±2.95) and (7.28±2.11). Those with lower score of subjective support were more likely to having multiple sexual partners (OR=0.901, [95%CI=0.847, 0.958]). Those with lower score of utilization of support were more likely to having unprotected sexual behavior (OR=0.844, [95%CI= 0.740, 0.962]). Conclusion: Evidence from this population-level survey indicates high exposure to sexual risk behavior and low social support in Guangzhou, whilst social support that is protective against sexual risk behavior. The role of social networks should be explored as potentially useful for community-based intervention development, especially among population with sexual risk behavior.
Médecins Sans Frontières, France
Title: Always two steps behind: Surveillance and chains of transmission during the Ebola outbreak in Bo, Sierra Leone, 2014
Time : 15:05-15:20
Veerle Hermans completed an MSc in Biology in 2007 in Ghent, followed by a Postgraduate in Tropical Biomedical Sciences and International Health at the Institute of Tropical Medicine (ITM) in Antwerp. Staying as a scientific collaborator at the ITM she resulted in 2 published articles in Malaria Journal. A passion for primates motivated her to successfully complete a Master in Research on Primatology at Roehampton University in London in 2011. Between 2011 and 2013 periods of field work for the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology (Leipzig), she alternated with medical writing for Janssen Research and Development (Beerse). In April 2014, she started as a field epidemiologist for MSF Belgium, working in the Ebola response for 7 months in Sierra Leone and 2 months in Liberia.
Sierra Leone is the worst affected Ebola country housing almost half of all cases. Since April 2003 Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) was managing a secondary level paediatric and obstetric emergency hospital near Bo Town, an economic hub in Sierra Leone. Close collaboration existed with the Ministry of Health Disease Surveillance Officers prior to the outbreak. When the first positive patient was confirmed in Bo, teams immediately started following up suspects and their contacts. Here we describe the mode of transmission over time, the different geographical clusters, and the breakdown in surveillance coverage in the district following the dramatic rise in case numbers. Program data were analyzed retrospectively from the 20th of June until the 18th of October 2014. A total of 288 suspects were investigated, with 161 confirmed and 61 probable cases. On July 4th of the 35 (11%) confirmed/probable patients were admitted to an MSF Ebola Treatment Centre, whereas in October this increased to 44% (24/55). Of all confirmed/probable cases, modes of transmission could be classified as funerals (37%), unknown (30%), house hold (16%), contacts without further information (5%), hospital acquired (9%) and contact while travelling/visiting family (3%). While in July, 11% of the confirmed/probable cases had an unknown mode of transmission, this increased to 58% in October. Although preparedness was started before the first case arrived in Bo District, the control over the situation was lost due to the magnitude of the outbreak and the shortage of human resources in the field to perform surveillance related activities.
Peking University School of Public Health, China
Title: Salt sales survey: a simplified, cost-effective method to evaluate population salt reduction programmes-a cluster randomised trial
Time : 15:20-15:35
Yuan Ma is a PhD student in Cardiovascular Epidemiology at Peking University School of Public Health. Her research interests lie in population salt reduction, diet & public health, and cardiovascular diseases. Her supervisor is Professor Yangfeng Wu. She is currently studying at Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Queen Mary University of London as an associate PhD student under the supervision of Professor Graham MacGregor and Dr. Feng He.
Background The 24h urine collection, as a gold standard method to measure salt intake, is costly and resource-consuming, hence limiting its use in monitoring population salt reduction programmes. Our study aimed to determine whether a salt sales survey could serve as an alternative. Methods We carried out a sub-study of China Rural Health Initiative Sodium Reduction Study (CRHI-SRS), where 120 villages were randomly allocated (1:1:2) to PS+HE (Price Subsidy + Health Education) intervention, HE (Health Education) intervention and control, with salt substitute(SS) supplied to shops in the intervention groups. 24h urine from 2567 randomly selected adults was collected at the end of the trial. In this sub-study, ten villages were randomly selected from each group (i.e. 30 villages in total) and 166 shops from these villages were invited for the monthly salt sales survey. Results The results showed that during the intervention period, mean daily sales of SS per shop were significantly different among three groups (PS+HE=1.3 kg> HE =0.6kg >control=0.1kg, all P<0.05). The pattern of differences was in line with that for 24h urine sodium and potassium. The intervention effect estimated from SS sales was 114% of that estimated from 24h urine for potassium and was 101% for sodium. Furthermore, the salt sales survey cost only 14% of that for 24h urine and had greater statistical power. Conclusions The results indicate that a salt sales survey could serve as a simple, sensitive and cost-effective method to evaluate community-based salt reduction programmes where salt is mainly added by the consumers.
University of Toronto, Canada
Time : 15:35-15:50
Farah Islam, PhD, is a postdoctoral fellow in the Social Aetiology of Mental Illness (SAMI) program at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health and the University of Toronto in Toronto, Canada. She completed her doctorate at York University (Toronto, Canada) in the field of epidemiology. She explores mental health and service access in Canada\'s racialized and immigrant populations, employing both quantitative epidemiology and mixed methods research. Farah orients her research and community work around breaking down the barriers of mental health stigma.
Introduction: Ontario is home to the largest immigrant population in Canada. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence rates and characteristics of past-year mental health consultation for Ontario’s adult (18+ years old) immigrant populations. Methods: The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 2012 was used to calculate the prevalence rates of past-year mental health consultation by service provider type. To determine the characteristics associated with mental health consultation, multivariable logistic regression analysis was carried out on merged CCHS 2008-2012 data. Results: Adult immigrant populations in Ontario (n = 3,995) had lower estimated prevalence rates of mental health consultation across all service provider types compared to Canadian-born populations (n = 14,644). Amongst those who reported past-year mental health consultation, 57.89% of Ontario immigrants contacted their primary care physician, which was significantly higher than the proportion who consulted their family doctor from Canadian-born populations (45.31%). The factors of gender, age, racial/ethnic background, education level, working status, food insecurity status, self-perceived health status, smoking status, alcohol drinking status, years since immigration, and age at time of immigration were significantly associated with past-year mental health consultation for immigrant populations. Discussion: Ontario’s adult immigrant populations rely on their family doctor for mental health care. Potential exists for expanding community outreach for other avenues of mental health care. These findings provide an overview of mainstream mental health consultation. Comprehensive data to understand how immigrant populations attain informal and non-mainstream mental health care is needed. Examination of the social determinants of mental health is critical to understand how we can best serve the mental health needs of Ontario’s immigrant populations.
Sun Yat-sen University, China
Title: Trends and risk factors of HIV, HCV, and syphilis seroconversion among drug users in methadone maintenance treatment program in China: A seven-year retrospective cohort study
Time : 15:50-16:05
Xia Zou is student in Sun Yat-sen University, P.R. China
Among 9,240 participants, the overall HIV seroconversion rate was 0.20 (0.13-0.28)/100 person-years (pys), 20.54 (18.62-22.46)/100 pys for HCV, and 0.77 (0.62-0.93)/100 pys for syphilis over the study period. HIV seroconversion rate showed a moderate but non-significant annual decline of 13.34% (-42.48-30.56%) (Chi-2 trend test: p=0.369), whereas the decline of HCV seroconversion was 16.12% (5.53-25.52%) per annum (p<0.001). Syphilis seroconversionrate remained stable (p=0.540). Urine results positive for opioid predicted HIV seroconversion (≥60% versus <60%: HR=3.40, 1.07-10.85), being unmarried (HR=1.59, 1.15-2.20), injection drug use in the past 30 days (HR=2.17, 1.42-3.32), having sexual intercourse in the past 3 months (HR=1.74, 1.22-2.47) and higher daily dosage of methadone (≥60 ml versus <60 ml: HR=1.40, 1.01-1.94) predicted HCV seroconversion. Being female (HR=3.56, 2.25-5.64) and infected with HCV at baseline (HR=2.40, 1.38-8.36) were associated with subsequent syphilis seroconversion.
University of Glasgow, UK
Title: Ethnic variation in the contribution of cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength to diabetes: Cross-sectional study of 68,116 UK Biobank participants
Time : 16:25-16:40
Uduakobong E Ntuk is public health doctoral student at University of Glasgow, UK
Aims/Hypothesis: Diabetes prevalence is substantially higher in black and south Asian compared with white European adults. This study aimed to quantify the extent to which ethnic differences in cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength might account for this. Methods: This cross-sectional study used baseline data from UK Biobank on 68,011 white European, black and south Asian adults, aged 40-69 years, who had complete data on diabetes status, hand-grip strength and cardiorespiratory fitness. Associations between age and sex-specific textiles of fitness and strength (low, moderate, high) and diabetes were assessed in analyses adjusted for age, smoking, socioeconomic status and percentage body fat. Attributable risk associated with low-to-moderate fitness and strength was calculated for each ethnicity/sex group. Results: Diabetes risk was higher in blacks and south Asians than whites across almost all strength and fitness categories. Within each ethnicity/sex group, those with both low fitness and strength had 2.1-3.6 fold increased odds of diabetes compared with those with high fitness and strength. Attributable risk for diabetes associated with low-to-moderate strength and fitness was 8.2 and 5.0 cases per 100 people in south Asian men and women, respectively; 4.1 and 4.3 cases in black men and women; and 1.4 and 1.0 cases in white men and women. Conclusions/Interpretation: Low-to-moderate fitness and strength contributes to a disproportionately large number of diabetes cases in south Asian and black groups. Interventions to improve strength and fitness may help reduce ethnic inequalities in diabetes prevalence.
University of Brasilia, Brazil
Title: Factors related with early treatment for malaria in the Brazilian Amazon: A multivariable approach using a ten-year population-based malaria surveillance database
Time : 16:40-16:55
Isac da Silva Ferreira Lima’s research interest is focused on applications of biostatistical and epidemiological methods to epidemiology research. He obtained his BSc degree in Statistics from University of Brasilia in 2005 and completed his MSc in Epidemiology from University of Alberta, Canada in 2010. His worked on many different projects and have collaborated with researchers in Brazil, Canada and USA. In particular, he has provided statistical support to a major group of researchers involved in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS), and on another two projects with the Alberta Health Services and the Alberta Ingenuity Centre for Machine Learning (AICML) which led to two research publications. He is currently a PhD student in Epidemiology at the University of Brasilia working under the supervision of Dr. Elisabeth Carmen Duarte. His thesis work is focused on the application of multivariable techniques for the investigation of factors associated with incidence, mortality and early treatment for malaria in the Brazilian Amazon.
Background & Aim: Despite all the efforts to reduce malaria incidence and to prevent deaths, the disease persists as an important public health problem in the Brazilian Amazon. Malaria is a treatable disease and essentially all deaths can be prevented throughout effective health care. Early malaria diagnostic and adequate treatment are not only a way to prevent deaths, but also an important tool for disease control in a population since it reduces the probability of mosquito bites in an infectedpatient. Consequently, the Malaria National Program (MNP) in Brazil has established as a strategic goal to decrease the delay between onset of symptoms and malaria treatment initiation. Therefore, it is important to investigate factors associated with late treatment initiation for malaria in the Brazilian Amazon to monitor the achievement of such goal. Materials & Methods: A population-based malaria surveillance database was obtained from the MNP-Ministry of Health for the period between 2004 and 2013. A multivariable adjusted logistic regression was fitted considering as outcome the lag time between onset of symptoms and treatment initiation (within 24 hours). Statistical significance was set at 0.05. Results: Over the 10-year study period, 3.3 million new cases of malaria were reportedto the MNP. Cases were mainly males (62%) and aged less than 40 years (82%). Nearly 41% of cases started malaria treatment within 24 hours of onset of symptoms. Cases receiving early treatment were at higher odds of being:i) identified in the field by active surveillance [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.37; 95%CI: 1.35 - 1.39] compared to passive surveillance; aged less than 6 years(AOR=1.39; 95% CI: 1.34 - 1.44)and between 6-14 years-old (AOR=1.34; 95% CI: 1.32 - 1.36) compared to aged 30-59 years; diagnosed in 2012 (AOR=1.48; 95%CI: 1.42 - 1.54) and 2013 (AOR=1.42; 95%CI: 1.35 - 1.49) compared to cases diagnosed in 2004; from the states of Acre, Rondôniaor Roraima (AOR>1.20; p<0.05) compared to cases from the state of Pará; native population (AOR=1.43; 95% CI: 1.34 - 1.54) compared to white population; and illiterate population or with less than 4 years of formal education (AOR=1.39; 95% CI: 1.34 - 1.44) compared to population with incomplete high school or more years of education. Analysis was replicated using exclusively data from the year of 2013, and results were very similar. Conclusion: Early treatment for malaria appears to be associated with active surveillance, early ages, geographical areas and access to public health care facilities. Additionally, in recent years, cases were more likely to start treatment before 24hours since the symptoms onset. This result may indicate improvements on exam and treatment access lately in Brazil.
University Joseph Fourier, France
Time : 16:55-17:10
Alexandra Vatsiou at the age of 24 years old is in her final year of PhD undertaken in the University Joseph Fourier in Grenoble. Her PhD is a Marie Curie program and the University Joseph Fourier is in collaboration with Era7, a Bioinformatic company in Granada, Spain and the Scottish Oceans Institute in the University of St Andrews. She completed her bachelor degree in University of Thessaly in Greece and her Master of research degree (MRes) in Computational Biology in the University of York where she was awarded with a BBSRC scholarship.
Uncovering signatures of positive selection has been a long-standing interest in the field of genomics. The high prevalence of metabolic diseases such as diabetes has been suggested to be associated with positive selective pressures. Advantageous alleles increase in frequency and linked surrounding deleterious mutations rise in frequency as well, therefore the high prevalence of many diseases. High-density SNP maps of the human genome enable us to look for such regions involved in the susceptibility to diseases, particularly diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Firstly, we conduct a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the performance of several existing methods to detect positive selection. Out of the 7 methods (EHHST, XPEHHST, XP-EHH, iHS, nSL, XPCLR and hapFLK) that were compared under various demographic scenarios, XPCLR and iHS were found to perform best. These two methods were used for a genome scan of the HapMap Phase II database. Based on these results, we carried out an enrichment analysis to uncover signals enriched for positive selection. Two methods to conduct the enrichment analysis were used: the SUMSTAT statistic and Gowinda, an already available tool. String, Intact and Bio4j databases were also used to extract information about possible Protein-Protein Interactions associated with the ‘interesting genes’. Our results indicate that selection has affected in a large percentage the evolution of diseases in the human history. More specifically, 64 pathways were discovered to have undergone selection and a total of 16 positively selected genes were found to have a direct or indirect links with diabetes, obesity or metabolic syndrome.
King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia
Title: Epidemiology and clinical consequences of occupational exposure to blood and other body fluids in a University Hospital in Saudi Arabia
Time : 17:10-17:25
Shireen Samargandy is a senior medical student at King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Medicine. She has an interest in clinical research and infection control.
Objective: To describe the epidemiological characteristics, clinical impact, and adequacy of post-exposure management of occupational exposures to blood and other body fluids (BBFs) at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Saudi Arabia. Design: Retrospective review study over 7 years. Participants: Individuals reporting BBFs exposures from 2006 to 2012 were identified from Infection Control and Environmental Health unit. Methods: Charts of exposed individuals were reviewed to collect relevant data using a standardized data collection form. Results: The total number of exposures reported was 326 exposures, of which 302 (92.6%) exposures were percutaneous, 21 (6.5%), mucocutaneous, and 3 (0.9%), bites. Nursing staff/students had the highest rate of exposure (149, or 45.6%), followed by physicians (57, or 17.5%), and dental students (39, or 12%). Surgeons had a higher risk for sharp injuries compared to other physicians (p<0.005). Most (216, or 72.5%) percutaneous injuries were caused by hollow-bore needles. The majority of exposures (124, or 42.6%) occurred after use of the needle/sharp and before disposal. The source patient was known to be positive for HBV, HCV, or HIV in 72 (22.1%) incidents, negative for all three viruses in 147 (45.1%), negative for one or two viruses and unknown for others in 13 (3.9%) and unknown/untested for all three in 94 (28.8%). Two-thirds (219, or 67%) of exposed individuals were immune to hepatitis B at the time of exposure, and none seroconverted to HIV, HBV, or HCV infection. Conclusion: Occupational exposure to BBFs is concerning among healthcare workers. Educational programs targeting high-risk groups entailing preventive measures and post-exposure management are needed.