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11th International Conference on Epidemiology & Public Health, will be organized around the theme “Difficulties encountered and solutions adopted in the fields of Epidemiology and Public Health”
Epidemiology 2019 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Epidemiology 2019
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Public Health Burden for Infectious Diseases
In each year an estimated 76 million cases
− The ratio of foodborne illness each year is one in four
− Americans is hospitalized each year one in 1,000
− $6.5 billion in medical and other costs
3.5 million cases, 33,000 hospitalizations, and 1,600 deaths are caused by the pathogens.
Dengue and DHF became a major health problem throughout Latin America.
Diseases classified according to signs and symptoms
1. Diarrheal diseases
2. Respiratory diseases
3. Cutaneous/soft tissue infection
4. CNS diseases
5. Septicemic diseases
6. Fever of undetermined origin
Epidemiological methods are frequently used by food hygiene and public health veterinarians to determine relevant risk factors associated with disease occurrence. Knowledge of these risk factors is used to direct further research investigation and to implement disease control measures. The following papers in this issue give information about hazard analysis critical control points. Bear in mind that epidemiological tools are used for disease surveillance to identify which hazards are the most important, and epidemiological studies are used to identify risk factors which may represent critical control points in food production systems.
Concepts used in social epidemiology can make a useful contribution to health services research because the underlying social factors do not only influence health but are also related to health care. Social inequality indicators like education or income have an impact on access to health care as well as on utilization and quality of health care. Social relationships influence adherence to medical treatment, help-seeking behavior, utilization of health services, and outcomes. Social capital in health care organizations is an important factor for the delivery of high-quality coordinated care. Job stress is highly prevalent among health care providers and can not only affect their health but also their performance.
Pulmonary disease prevalence increases with age and contributes to morbidity and mortality in older patients. Dyspnea in older patients is often ascribed to multiple etiologies such as medical comorbidities and deconditioning. Common pulmonary disorders are frequently overlooked as contributors to dyspnea in older patients. In addition to negative impacts on morbidity and mortality, quality of life is reduced in older patients with uncontrolled, undertreated pulmonary symptoms. The purpose of this review is to discuss the epidemiology of common pulmonary diseases, namely pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, lung cancer, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in older patients. We will review common clinical presentations for these diseases and highlight differences between younger and older patients. We will also briefly discuss risk factors, treatment, and mortality associated with these diseases. Finally, we will address the relationship between comorbidities, pulmonary symptoms, and quality of life in older patients with pulmonary diseases.
Epidemiologists continue to search for factors that cause cancer (like tobacco use, obesity,ultraviolet radiation), as well as those things that can help protect against cancer (such asphysical activity and a healthy diet). This research provides evidence to guide public health recommendations and regulations.As molecular biologists learn more about how factors cause or prevent cancer, this information is used to study molecular epidemiology, which is the study of interactions between genes and external factors.
Epidemiology encompasses the identification of infectious disease, the vectors of transmission, the sources of contamination, the patient population exposed or involved, containment practices, and preventative measures to stop further transmission of the disease. Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis is a common infectious disease in ophthalmology. It can be contracted from interpersonal exposure, contact with contaminated items, or iatrogenic transmission from the health-care settings and providers. The interview process, plus patient education, is the method of epidemiologic assessment that acts as the format to dealing with the epidemic
Concerns have been raised about the value of genomic research for prevention and public health, especially for complex diseases with risk factors that are amenable to environmental modification. Given that gene-environment interactions underlie almost all human diseases, the public health significance of genomic research on common diseases with modifiable environmental risks is based not necessarily on finding new genetic ‘‘causes’’ but on improving existing approaches to identifying and modifying environmental risk factors to better prevent and treat disease. Such applied genomic research for environmentally caused diseases is important, because it may help stratify disease risks and differentiate interventions for achieving population health benefits; it could help identify new environmental risk factors for disease or help confirm suspected environmental risk factors; and it may aid our understanding of disease occurrence in terms of transmission, natural history, severity, etiologic heterogeneity, and targets for intervention at the population level. While genomics is still in its infancy, opportunities exist for developing, testing, and applying the tools of genomics to clinical and public health research, especially for conditions with known or suspected environmental causes. This research is likely to lead to population-wide health promotion and disease prevention efforts, not only to interventions targeted according to genetic susceptibility