Day 3 :
Cooper Medical School of Rowan University, USA
Young graduated from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health as Master and Doctor of Public Health, with specialization in Epidemiology and Social Medicine. He also took a Master’s degree in Sociology from Pennsylvania State University where he studied demography, biostatistics and quantitative research methods as a doctoral candidate. His research focuses on the distribution of air toxic exposure, neighborhood health effects, and vulnerability to chronic disease and health care disparities. He holds positions as Executive Vice President for Health Policy at Cooper University Health Care and Assistant Professor in the Department of Medicine of Cooper Medical School of Rowan University, where he is Director of the Center for Injury Epidemiology and Social Medicine.
There is no widely accepted conceptual framework for incorporating social causation and the role of social factors in the biomedical physiological model that dominates contemporary epidemiology. Social epidemiology has contributed significant insights about the distribution of disease and poses fundamental questions about disease pathology. The social determinate of health literature emphasizes inequality across populations, but typically uses status measures (SES, SEP) rather than socioeconomic deprivation (SED) to account for variability in health outcomes. This paper views population vulnerability as the interaction of differential exposure and differential susceptibility related to SED. This paper reviews the sociology of SED and explores plausible mechanisms of the disease process related to SED. Two indices of SED (Townsend Index, Neighborhood Concentrated Disadvantage) are then used in three demonstrations of SED-related vulnerability: (a) differential exposure to hazardous air pollution among U.S census tracts (1999-2005); (b) differential susceptibility to cardiorespiratory hospitalization among the 566 towns in New Jersey (2000-2005) ; and (c) differential vulnerability to premature mortality among U.S counties (1999-2008). Findings include support for construct and convergent validity of SED measures, and statistically significant effects (beta coefficients) for SED after adjustment for population size and density: (a) greater environmental respiratory hazard exposure (.17) among U.S. census tracts; (b) higher respiratory (.89) and cardiovascular (1.9) hospitalization among NJ adults 25-64 years; and (c) increased premature all cause mortality (.44) among adults aged 35-64 in U.S counties. This paper demonstrates how sociological models of SED can be incorporated into epidemiology and advances understanding of social causation in the disease process.
National University of Santiago del Estero, Argentina
Roberto Antonio Flores has been Graduated from National University of Tucuman, Argentina as Medical Doctor, with the specialties including Internal Medicine, Social and Community Medicine and Diploma in Cardiology from the National University of Tucuman and Medical Clinic National Academy of Medicine Argentina. Later on he obtained his post-graduation from National University of Cuyo with subjects Pharmacology & Biology and then started working at The Nurses School, Faculty of Humanities, Social Sciences and Health, National University of Santiago del Estero, Argentina where he has continued his research. Presently he has been working at the at the Regional Hospital Dr. Ramon Carrillo, Santiago del Estero City. He has got eminent memberships in many Scientific Societies including Internal Medicine and Cardiology at the Society of Santiago del Estero, Argentina, Membership of Argentina Federation of Cardiology, Membership of Hypertension Committee of Argentina Federation of Cardiology, Membership of Inter American Society of Cardiology and Board of Epidemiology of Inter American Society of Cardiology.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to obtain information related to the patients attending the outpatient clinic consultation, Medical Clinic with high blood pressure, and see how the presence of any risk factors for cardiovascular disease impacts the tension figures these hypertensive patients. Objectives: General: Perform the control and monitoring of the hypertensive population and investigate the presence of some risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Specific: +) Describe the hypertensive population that goes to the consultation. +) Demonstrate the presence of some risk factors for cardiovascular disease such as smoking and physical inactivity, impact on the blood pressure in hypertensive patients said. Methods: This is a quantitative, descriptive and transversal work, which began in October of 2015 ending in December 2015, registering the blood pressure and questioned about physical inactivity and smoking, in Office External Hospital. The variables studied were age, sex, sedentary lifestyle, smoking. Result: The total number of consultations were 60. 180 controls blood pressure were recorded, the first control was discarded and the last two controls were averaged and were questioned about smoking and physical activity. The blood pressure were normal in 26 patients (44% of the sample), 34 patients registered high pressure values (56.66% of the sample). All patients were medicated with a drug 15, and 45 with two drugs. According to age: 20-29: 05, from 30-39: 10, from 40-49: 12, from 50-59: 14, 60- 69:16, from 70-79: 02, of 80-89 1, with a total of 60 hypertensive, all medicated. According to sex: Men: 25, is 41.66% of the total population. Women: 35, is 58.33% of the population. Sedentary amount: 34, representing 56.66% of the total sample. Number of smokers: 33, representing 55% of the total sample. Conclusions: Hypertensive patients with drug treatment who do not perform physical activity and smoking, elevated blood pressure values recorded, despite pharmacological intervention. In patients with drug treatment, who are physically active and not smoking the blood pressure they were normal.